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2019年初中英语语法重点之副词

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收藏 来源:福建中考网2019-02-11 14:38:23

新一轮中考复习备考周期正式开始,中考网为各位初三考生整理了中考五大必考学科的知识点,主要是对初中三年各学科知识点的梳理和细化,帮助各位考生理清知识脉络,熟悉答题思路,希望各位考生可以在考试中取得优异成绩!下面是《2019年初中英语语法重点之副词》,仅供参考!

副词

1、副词在句子中的位置以及作用:

⑴做状语:

① 时间副词:一般放在句首或句尾,注意,early、late、before、later、yet等一般放在句尾,already、just一般放在动词的前面。如:We will visit the Great Wall tomorrow.(我们明天要去参观长城) / They have already been to theUKtwice.(他们去过英王国两次) / Soon the lost boy found his way back home.(不久迷路的孩子找到了回家的路)

② 频度副词:一般放在be动词之后或者助动词与主要动词之间,但sometimes、often等还可以放在句首或句尾,usually可放在句首,once可放在句尾,twice、three times等一般放在句尾。如:Sometimes I get up early.(我有时起得早)/ The workers usually have lunch at the factory.(工人们通常在厂里吃午饭) / Take this medicine twice a day.(这种药一天吃两次)

③ 方式副词:一般放在行为动之后,suddenly可以放在句首、句尾或动词之前。如:Old people can hardly walk as quickly as young people.(老年人几乎不可能走得和年轻人一样快) / Suddenly he saw a light in the dark cave(山洞).(突然,在黑黢黢的山洞里,他看见了一丝亮光)

④ 地点副词:一般放在句尾,但here、there还可放在句首。如:There you can see thousands of bikes running in all directions(方向).(在那里,你可以看到成千上万的自行车朝各个方向流动) / The frightened wolf ran away.(受到惊吓的狼逃开了)/ He walked out quietly and turned back soon.(他悄悄地走了出去,很快又返回)

⑤ 程度副词:修饰动词时,放在动词之前;修饰形容词或副词时,放在形容词或副词之前。但注意,enough总是放在被修饰的形容词或动词的后面;only位置比较灵活,总是放在被修饰的词的前面。如:I nearly forgot all about it if he did not tell me again.(如果他不再次告诉我,我几乎把那事全忘了) / It was so strange that I could hardly believe my ears.(它那么奇怪一直我都不能相信我的耳朵) / She got to the station early enough to catch the first bus.(她早早地赶到车站赶上了首班车)

⑥ 疑问副词:用于对句子的状语进行提问,位置总是在句首。如:When and where were you born?(你何时何地出生?)/ Why did little Edison sit on some eggs?(小爱迪生为什么要坐在鸡蛋上?)/ How do you do?(你好!)

⑦ 连接副词:用来引导主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句,在从句中作状语。How I am going to kill the cat is still a question.(我打算怎样杀死那只猫还是个问题)/ That is why everyone is afraid of the tiger.(那就是人人都害怕老虎的原因) / He wondered how he could do it the next day.(他不知道第二天怎样做那事)

⑧ 关系副词:用来引导定语从句,在从句中作状语。如:This is the place where Mr Zhang once lived.(这就是张先生曾经住过的地方)/ Please tell me the way how you have learned English so well.(请告诉我你的英语是怎样学得这么好的方法)

⑨ 其它副词:too“也”,用在句尾;also放在动词前;either “也不”,放在句尾;nor“也不”,放在句首;so“如此,这样”,放在形容词、副词前;on/off“开/关”放在动词之后;not放在be之后、助动词之后、不定式或动名词之前;maybe/perhaps放在句首;certainly放在句首或动词之前。如:He went to the Palace Museum and I went there,too.(他去了故宫博物院,我也去了) / Maybe your ticket is in your inside pocket.(也许你的票就在你的里边衣袋里) / --Tom doesn’t have a computer. –Nor do I.(汤姆没有计算机,我也没有。)

(2)作表语:地点副词一般可以作表语,放在be等连系动词之后,说明人物所处的位置。如:I’m very sorry he isn’t in at the moment.(很抱歉,他此刻不在家)/ I have been away from my hometown for nearly 20 years.(我离开家乡有将近20年了) / Jim is over there.(吉姆就在那边)

(3)作定语:时间副词(如now、then)以及许多地点副词都可以作名词的定语,放在名词的后面。如:People now often have their festival dinners at restaurants.(现在的人们经常在餐馆里吃节日晚宴) / Women there were living a terrible life in the 1920s.(在二十世纪20年代那儿的女人过着可怕的日子)

(4)作宾语补足语:地点副词一般可以作宾语补足语。如:Put your dirty socks away, Jim! They are giving out bad smell!(吉姆,把你的脏袜子拿开!它们在散发着臭气。) / Father kept him in and doing his lessons.(父亲把他关在家里做作业)

[注意] “动词+副词”的宾语如果是代词,则该副词应该放在代词之后。如:He wrote down the word.(他写下了那个词。)→He wrote it down.(他把它写了下来。)

2、有关副词的重要注释:

⑴ as…as…常构成一些词组:as soon as…(一旦…就…), as well as…(同样), as+形容词/副词+as possible(尽可能……地)。如:Please ring me up as soon as you get to Beijing.(请你一到北京就给我写信。)/ Miss Gao hurried to the school gate as quickly as possible.(高小姐尽快地赶到了校门口。)

[注释] “as long / much as + 名词”可以表示“长达/多达…”的含义。如:The house costs as much as five hundred thousand yuan.(那幢房子花费高达50万元。)/ They stayed in the cave(山洞)as long as two weeks.(他们呆在山洞里长达两周。)

⑵ later、after、ago、before的用法:①“一段时间+later/ago”分别表示“(多久)以后/以前”,主要用于过去时态。②“after/before+某个时刻”分别表示“在某时刻之后/之前”,此时两个词是介词。③ago与before:ago只能用于过去时,before用于完成时。如:He had an accident a week ago.(一周前出了一个事故)/ Some years later, the boy became a very famous singer.(数年后这个男孩成了著名的歌唱家)/ Have you been there before?(你从前到过那儿吗?)/ After a few years he gave up smoking.(过了几年他戒了烟。)

⑶ above、below、over、under的用法:在上下方用above和below,在高低处用over和under.如:The stars are high above in the sky.(星星高挂在空中) / A plane flew over quickly.(一架飞机从头顶飞过。)

当above、below、over、under是介词性质时,意义相似。

⑷ too、also、either、nor的用法:too(“也”)用于肯定句和疑问句的末尾,且用逗号隔开;also(“也”)用于肯定句句子谓语动词之前;either(“也”)用于否定句末尾,也用逗号隔开;nor(“也不”)用于倒装句句首;如:Are you American,too?(你也是美国人吗?)/ He is not happy and I am not happy, either.(他不愉快,我也不。) / He didn’t watch the football game. Nor did I.(他没有看足球赛,我也没有。)/ You can also find the market is very good.(你还可以发觉那个市场很好。)

⑸ enough、too、so、very、quite、very much的用法: enough (“足够,十分”)放在形容词或副词之后;too(“太”)、very(“非常”)、quite(“相当”)、so(“如此地”)等放在形容词或副词之前,very much(“非常”)放在动词之后。如:It’s too/so/very/quite expensive.(它太贵/那么贵/非常贵/相当贵。)/ I don’t like sweets very much.(我不很喜欢糖果)

[注意] very与 much的区别:very修饰形容词、副词的原级和现在分词形容词,much修饰形容词和副词的比较级;much还可以修饰疑问句和否定句中的动词,very不可以。如:He is very stupid.(他很笨)/ The film was very moving and everyone swept.(电影非常动人,大家都哭了)/ You must work much harder or you will fail to enter the good school.(你得学习更努力,不然你考不进那所好学校)/ I don’t like him much.(我不太喜欢他)

⑹ sometimes、 sometime、 some times 、some time的用法:sometimes(有时)用于一般现在时、 sometime(在将来某时)用于将来时、 some times(数次)表示次数、some time(一些时间)表示一段时间。如:Sometimes they go hiking in the mountains.(他们有时徒步旅行到山里去)/ I will stay here some time.(我会在这儿呆些时候的。)/ I will meet your father sometime.(我什么时候要见见你的父亲。)

⑺ how、what用于感叹句的用法:对句子中的形容词或副词感叹时用how,对人或事物(可能含有形容词作修饰语)进行感叹用what. 如:What a fine day (it is) today!(今天天气真好!) / How difficult (the problem is)!((问题)真难呀!)

⑻ already、yet的用法:在完成时中,already一般用于肯定句,yet一般用于否定句和疑问句。如:Have you done it already?(你已经做好了?) / I have not had my breakfast yet.(我还没有吃早饭呢。)

⑼ hard与hardly的用法:hard作为副词意思是:“努力地,猛烈地”,hardly是否定词,意思是:“几乎不”,一般与情态动词can/could连用。如:They study English very hard.(他们英语学得很刻苦)/ You can hardly see a person spit in a public place.(在公共场所你几乎看不到一个人随地吐痰)

⑽ like...very much、like...better(=prefer)、like...best的用法:三个短语分别表示“非常喜欢”、“更喜欢”、“最喜欢”。如:I like baseball very much.(我非常喜欢棒球)/ Do you like butter better than cheese?( / They like hamburgers best.

⑾“quite/what+a+形容词+名词”的用法:记住:①quite/such/what...+a+形容词+名词;②too/so/how+形容词+a+名词;③rather+a+形容词+名词 = a+ rather+形容词+名词。如:I have never seen such a strange guy(家伙).(我从未见过这样奇怪的家伙) / It is quite a nice day for a walk.(这真是散步的好日子)

⑿ how 的几个短语:how often“多常,每隔多久”,用于一般时态,对表示频度的词语进行提问; how soon“多久以后”,用于将来时态; how long“多久”,用于过去时、完成时或其他时态; how many times“多少次”,用于过去时或完成时,对总计次数进行提问; how much“多么,多少”,对程度进行提问,也可以对数量(不可数)或金钱进行提问。如:How long have you been like this?(你这样已经多久了?)/ How often does he wash his face?(他每隔多久洗一次脸?)

⒀ much、more与most的用法:这三个词除了是形容词作名词的修饰语之外,还是程度副词,much表示“很”,修饰原级形/副,more表示“更”用来构成多音节形/副的比较级,most表示“最”用来构成多音节形/副的最高级。此外,much也可以修饰比较级形/副。如:This park is much more beautiful than that one.(这个公园比那个漂亮多了)/ It is the most instructive film I have ever seen.(这是我看过的最有教育意义的电影)

⒁ no more、no longer、not...any more、no...any longer的用法:表示时间,可以用no longer、not...ny more、no...any longer,而且no longer只能放在谓语动词之前;表示程度,可以用no more、not...any more.如:He no longer lived there.(他不再住在那里) / Tom wanted no more cakes.(他不想再要蛋糕) / He didn’ t smoke any more/longer.(他不再抽烟)

⒂ 被动语态中,方式副词一般放在be与谓语动词之间。如: The runner was badly hurt.(赛跑运动员受了重伤) / English is widely spoken in the world today.(如今世界上英语说得很广泛)

⒃ too...to...与so...that...的问题:副词too/so后面跟形容词或副词,to后面跟动词,that后面跟从句。Too...to... (“太.……以致不……”)是否定的结构,用于简单句;so...that...(“如此…以致…”)是肯定结构,用于复合句。如:The child is too young to join the army.(这孩子年龄太小还不能参军)/ He is so strong that he can lift the heavy box.(他这么强壮,搬得动那个重箱子。)

⒄ 既是形容词也是副词的单词有:early, late, long, last, next, first, near, enough, much, all, hard, alone, fast, slow, high, low, straight等等。如:It was a long holiday.(那是个长假)/ He stayed there very long.(他在那儿呆了好久)/ Think hard then you will find a way.(好好想你就会找到办法)/ He is a very hard(难对付的) person.(他是个难玩的家伙)

⒅ farther与further的用法区别:表示地点、方向或距离时两个词同义,意思为“更远、较远”,但是further还表示“更多、进一步、额外”等意思,此时不能换为farther. 如:They decided to go farther/further the next day.(他们决定第二天走得再远些)/ This problem will be further discussed.(这个问题还要进一步讨论)/ Every one of them had their further studies after they left college.(他们每个人大学毕业后继续进修)

⒆ rather与quite的用法区别:同very一样,两个词都表示形容词或副词的程度,quite表示“不到最高程度但是比预料的好”,rather比quite更接近very的含义,含有令人惊讶的意思。

如:It’s quite a nice film.(这是部好片子)。(可能意味着不是一部最好的电影) / It’s rather a nice film.(这是部很不错的电影。)(意味着比大多数电影都好)

[注意]注意quite与rather后面的次序词序。

⒇ maybe、possibly、perhaps的区别:maybe“可能、也许”,比另外两个词更不正式、更随便、可能性不大;possibly“可能地、或者、也许”,可能性较大,在否定句和疑问句中表示“无论如何”;perhaps“可能”,较为常用而且正式,可能性也不大。如:You could put it over there,maybe.(也许你可以把它放在那边) / I couldn’t possibly have finished such a long book in such a short time.(我不可能在这么短的时间内完成这么长的一本书)/ I thought perhaps it was the letter you have been expecting.(我以为那也许就是你期盼的信件)

(21) most、mostly的区别:most作为形容词和名词时意思是“大多数的、大部分的”,作为副词时意思为“最,十分、很”;mostly仅为副词,意思为“主要地、多半地、大部分地”。如:I was at home most of the time when I was free.(我有空时大部分时间都在家)Most children are naughty.(大部分的孩子都淘气)/ This is the most exciting part of the film.(这是电影中最令人兴奋的部分)/She is mostly out on Sundays.(星期天她一般不在家)

(22) (be) worth、(be) worthy of的区别:worth一般被看作是介词,后面接名词或者动名词,用主动表示被动含义,还可以用副词well修饰;worthy of表示“值得的、配得上的”,后面跟动名词的被动形式。如:What is worth doing at all is worth doing well(凡是值得做的,就值得好好去做). / The house is worth ¥300,000.(房子价值30万元)/ This book is well worth reading several times.(这本书值得好好读几遍)/ It is a thing worthy of being seen.(这是一个值得看的东西)

(23)almost、nearly的区别:两个词意思相近,都表示“几乎、将近”,大多数情况下可以互换,与否定词连用时用almost不用nearly. almost no 相当于hardly any(几乎没有)。如:He had done almost nothing today.(他今天几乎没有干什么) / We are almost/nearly there.(我们几乎就到那里了)/ Almost nobody/Hardly anybody understood his words.(几乎没有人懂他的话)

(24) a bit与a little的区别:这两个名词短语经常当作副词使用,修饰形容词或副词的原级或比较级,可以互换,语气比rather弱。如:This digital camera is a bit(a little) expensive.(这台数码相机有点贵)/ It is a little(a bit) colder than yesterday.(今天比昨天冷了点)

另外,a little可以直接加不可数名词,a bit 则采用“a bit + of +名词(不可数或可数名词复数)”的形式。如:I have got a bit of a cold.(我有点感冒)/ Go and get a little water for me, please.(请你去给我搞点水来)

[注意] not a bit(=not at all)意为“根本不”,而 not a little则意为“非常,不是一点”。

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